The spine is made of several bones called vertebra. They are lined up so the spinal cord can run through the center of the bones. Spondylolisthesis is when one of the vertebrae (usually in the lower back area) slips out of place. It moves forward compared to the vertebra below and develops slowly over time.
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Spondylolisthesis is most often caused by a stress fracture ( Spondylolysis ). The fracture can make the vertebra unstable and allow it to slip forward. This type of fracture often occurs when a lot of stress and pressure is put on the back. This can occur with certain sports activities.
The condition can also be caused by spinal problems that are present at birth, like spina bifida .
Spondylolisthesis begins to progress at age 10-15 years. Symptoms may not appear until adulthood. In many cases of spondylolisthesis, there are no obvious symptoms. Symptoms that may be present include:
- Low back pain, which may feel like muscle strain
- Stiff back
- Muscle spasms of the hamstring
- Buttock pain and spasm
- Changes in posture and/or gait
- Numbness, weakness, or tingling around the pelvis, buttocks, or thighs
- Loss of bladder control
Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment options include:
Physical therapy usually involves exercise. The exercise will focus on strengthening the abdominal and back muscles. A back brace may also be recommended.
If you are overweight, your doctor may recommend you lose weight. This will help reduce stress on the spine.
Pain medications, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), may help manage pain.
Surgery may be needed if the bone has severely slipped or you do not respond to treatment. Surgery will fuse 2 of the vertebra together. The procedure is called spinal fusion .
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
Edits to original content made by Denver Health.
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a (Slipped Vertebra)
North American Spine Society http://www.spine.org
Ortho Info—American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons http://www.orthoinfo.org
Canadian Orthopaedic Association http://www.coa-aco.org
Canadian Orthopaedic Foundation http://www.canorth.org
Spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis.Ortho Info—American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons website. Available at: http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00053. Updated September 2016. Accessed November 27, 2017.
Spondylolisthesis. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116263/Spondylolisthesis . Updated July 13, 2017. Accessed November 27, 2017.