Stuttering

Overview

Definition

Stuttering is a speech disorder. It causes a person to repeat sounds, syllables, or words. Some sounds may be long and speech may be interrupted.

Causes

The exact cause is not known. It may happen when:

  • A child's ability to speak does not match his verbal demands
  • Certain genes
  • A person has a stroke, head trauma, or other type of brain injury
  • A person has emotional trauma (rare)
Muscles and Nerves Involved in Speech
Tongue Innervation
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

Risk Factors

Stuttering is more common in males and in children who are 2 to 6 years of age. Family history also raises the chances of stuttering.

SymptomsandDiagnosis

Symptoms

Problems may be:

  • Repeating sounds, syllables, or words
  • Making long sounds within words
  • Between-word pauses and lack of sound
  • Spurting speech

Diagnosis

The doctor will ask about your symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done. A speech language therapist may also do an exam. This is often enough to make the diagnosis.

Treatments

Treatment

There is no cure. The goal of treatment is to manage symptoms. This can with therapy to:

  • Improve the ability to speak smoothly
  • Learn ways to lessen stuttering, such as speaking more slowly or using breathing methods

Prevention

There are no current guidelines to prevent stuttering.

This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.

Edits to original content made by Denver Health.

a (Stammering; Disfluent Speech)

RESOURCES

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association http://www.asha.org 

The Stuttering Foundation http://www.stutteringhelp.org 

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Canadian Stuttering Association http://www.stutter.ca 

University of Alberta—Institute for Stuttering Treatment and Research http://www.istar.ualberta.ca 

References

Cruz C, Amorim H, Beca G, Nunes R. Neurogenic stuttering: a review of the literature. Rev Neurol. 2018;66(2):59-64.

Stuttering. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association website. Available at: http://www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/stuttering. Accessed April 9, 2020.

Stuttering. National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders website. Available at: http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/voice/pages/stutter.aspx. Updated March 6, 2017. Accessed April 9, 2020.