Aphasia

Overview

Definition

Aphasia is a disorder that affects the ability to communicate. People with aphasia may have difficulty with the expression and/or understanding of language, as well as reading and writing. Aphasia can be classified into 2 broad categories.

  • Expressive aphasia—difficulty communicating thoughts through speech and writing
  • Receptive aphasia—problems understanding spoken or written language

Causes

Aphasia is caused by an injury to parts of the brain that are involved with language. The injury may be the result of:

  • Stroke—most common cause
  • Traumatic head injury
  • Brain tumor
  • Brain infection
  • Neurodegenerative disorders
  • Other brain conditions
Stroke
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Risk Factors

Aphasia is more common in older people. Other factors that may increase your chance of aphasia include:

  • Increasing age
  • Family history of aphasia
  • Prior history of transient ischemic attacks (TIA)—sometimes referred to as mini-strokes

SymptomsandDiagnosis

Symptoms

Aphasia is a symptom of an underlying problem. It may include:

  • Difficulty speaking:
    • Speaking in short, fragmented phrases
    • Putting words in the wrong order
    • Using incorrect grammar
    • Switching sounds or words
    • Speaking in nonsense
    • Anomia—word-finding problems
  • Problems understanding oral language:
    • Needing extra time to process language
    • Difficulty following very fast speech
    • Taking the literal meaning of a figure of speech
  • Problems reading
  • Problems writing

Diagnosis

Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.

If you have a brain condition, you may already be seeing a doctor who specializes in the nervous system. This doctor will most likely be able to recognize your aphasia. Some simple tests may be done. For example, you may be asked to follow commands, answer questions, name objects, and have a conversation. You may then be referred to a speech-language pathologist who will perform additional tests to assess your speech and language skills.

Imaging tests are used to evaluate the brain and other structures. These may include:

  • MRI scan
  • CT scan

Your bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with:

Treatments

Treatment

Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment will focus on:

  • Treating the underlying cause of aphasia
  • Aphasia symptoms

Options for treating aphasia itself include:

Speech-Language Therapy

A speech-language specialist will help you:

  • Use your remaining communication abilities
  • Restore lost abilities
  • Learn to compensate for language problems
  • Learn other methods of communicating.

This therapy may take place in both individual and group settings.

Family Counseling

A speech-language therapist will help you and your family learn how to best communicate with each other.

Psychological evaluation may also be helpful.

Prevention

Since stroke is a common cause of aphasia. To help reduce the chance of a stroke:

  • Exercise regularly.
  • Eat plenty of fruits and vegetables.
  • Limit salt and fat in your diet.
  • If you smoke, talk to your doctor about how to successfully quit.
  • If you drink, do so in moderation. Moderation is 2 or less drinks per day for men and 1 or fewer drinks per day for women.
  • Maintain a healthy weight.
  • Control your blood pressure.
  • Ask your doctor if you should take low-dose aspirin.
  • Properly treat and control chronic conditions, like diabetes.

If you have signs of a stroke, call for emergency medical services right away.

This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.

Edits to original content made by Denver Health.

RESOURCES

National Aphasia Association http://www.aphasia.org 

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke http://www.ninds.nih.gov 

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Aphasia Institute http://www.aphasia.ca 

Brain Injury Awareness http://www.biaa.ca 

References

Aphasia. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association website. Available at: http://www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/Aphasia. Accessed February 12, 2016.

Aphasia. National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) website. Available at: http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/voice/pages/aphasia.aspx. Updated June 7, 2010. Accessed February 12, 2016.

Stroke rehabilitation. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:  http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T580145/Stroke-rehabilitation . Updated September 9, 2016. Accessed September 27, 2016.