Eczema is more common in people of African or Asian descent.
Factors that increase your chance of eczema include:
- Asthma or hay fever
- Urban areas or places with low humidity
- A family history of eczema or allergic disorders
- Exposure to certain fabrics, perfumes in soaps, dust mites (common), or foods
- Stress, especially if it leads to scratching
- Frequent washing of affected areas
- Use of rubber gloves in persons sensitive to latex
- Scratching or rubbing of skin
- Immunosuppressant medications
- Excess weight or obesity
The symptoms vary from person to person. Scratching and rubbing can cause or worsen some of the symptoms. Symptoms include:
- Dry, itchy skin
- Cracks behind the ears or in other skin creases
- Red rashes on the cheeks, arms, and legs
- Red, scaly skin
- Thick, leathery skin
- Small, raised bumps on the skin
- Crusting, oozing, or cracking of the skin
- Symptoms that worsen in the winter when inside air is dry due to central heating
The main goals of eczema treatments are to:
- Heal the skin and keep it healthy
- Stop scratching or rubbing
- Avoid skin infection
- Prevent flare-ups
- Identify and avoid triggers
Treatment options may vary. Your doctor may recommend more than one depending on your condition. They include:
Proper skin care may allow the skin to heal. Treatment may include the following:
- Avoid hot or long baths or showers. Keep them less than 15 minutes.
- Use mild, unscented bar soap or non-soap cleanser. Use it sparingly.
- Air-dry or gently pat dry after bathing. Apply gentle moisturizer when your skin is still damp.
- Treat skin infections right away.
In some cases, medication may also be needed and may include:
- Prescription creams and ointments containing cortisone, tacrolimus, or pimecrolimus
- Prescription or over-the-counter antihistamines to help prevent itching
- Antibiotics applied directly to the skin or taken by mouth in order to treat infections
- Oral medications, such as prednisone or cyclosporine for severe cases
- Dupilumab injection to reduce swelling in severe cases
If skin care and medications are not effective, light therapy may be used. This may include:
- Treatment with ultraviolet A light and 5-methoxypsoralen (PUVA)
- Photopheresis—For severe cases
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
Edits to original content made by Denver Health.
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a (Atopic Dermatitis)
American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology http://www.aaaai.org
National Eczema Society http://www.eczema.org
Canadian Dermatology Association http://www.dermatology.ca
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
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