Chronic Kidney Disease
CKD is caused by damage or disease in the kidneys. Common causes include:
- High blood pressure
- Problems with the kidneys, such as:
- Cystic kidney disease
- Blockages from kidney stones
- Acute tubular necrosis
- Renal tubular disorders
- Damage due to drugs or toxins
- Severe infection
- Problems with the immune system
CFD is more common in older adults. Smoking and alcohol use disorder are the main risk factors. Other things that may raise the risk are:
- Family history of kidney disease
- High blood pressure
- Vesicoureteral reflux —back up of urine into kidneys
- Infections, such as long term urinary tract infections
- Exposure to high levels of lead
- Being overweight or obese
- A prior kidney transplant
There is no cure. The goal of treatment is to prevent or slow damage and manage problems. Options are:
The doctor may advise stopping or changing any medicines that hurt the kidneys.
Medicines may be given to:
- Control health problems that hurt the kidneys, such as high blood pressure and diabetes
- Manage problems caused by CKD, such as swelling, nausea, or feeling tired.
The doctor may advise:
- Not smoking
- Dietary changes
- Regular exercise
People with severe CKD may need:
- Dialysis —a machine that cleans the blood
- A kidney transplant
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
Edits to original content made by Denver Health.
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a (CKD; Chronic Renal Disease)
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases https//www.niddk.nih.gov
National Kidney Foundation https://www.kidney.org
Health Canada https://www.canada.ca
The Kidney Foundation of Canada https://www.kidney.ca
Chronic kidney disease. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Available at: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/kidney-disease/chronic-kidney-disease-ckd. Accessed December 28, 2020.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in adults. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/overview-of-chronic-kidney-disease-ckd-in-adults. Accessed December 28, 2020.
Gaitonde DY, Cook DL, Rivera IM. Chronic kidney disease: detection and evaluation. Am Fam Physician. 2017;96(12):776-783.