Infants and young children naturally have flat feet. The arch should develop over time. Sometimes, the arch does not develop. It is not always clear why this happens.
Causes may be:
- Rupture or damage to the tendon that supports the arch
- Health problems that affect the muscles or nerves in the foot
- Ligament damage in the foot
- Changes in certain foot joints over time
In newborns, this problem is more common in girls. In children who are 3 to 8 years old, this problem is more common in boys. In adults, this problem is more common in women after age 55 years of age.
Other things that may raise the risk in children are:
- Loose joints
- Sitting on his or her bottom with both knees bent in a 'w' shape
- Delayed nerve and muscle development
People without symptoms may just need to be monitored. People who do have symptoms may need to see a doctor who treats feet. Options are:
- Physical therapy and exercises to stretch and strengthen the muscles of the foot
- Shoe inserts to support the foot or shoes with a good arch support
- Braces to treat flat feet caused by nerve or muscle problems
People who are not helped by these methods may need surgery to create an arch.
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
Edits to original content made by Denver Health.
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a (Pes Planus; Pes Planovalgus; Fallen Arches)
Foot Health Facts—American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons http://www.foothealthfacts.org
Ortho Info—American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons http://orthoinfo.org
Canadian Federation of Podiatric Medicine http://www.podiatryinfocanada.ca
Canadian Podiatric Medical Association http://www.podiatrycanada.org
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