Causes may be:

  • Infections, such as strep throat, HIV, endocarditis
  • Immune system problems, such as lupus
  • Problems with blood vessels
  • Other kidney problems
  • Changes in genes
  • Diabetes
  • Damage due to drugs or toxins

Risk Factors

Things that may raise the risk are:

  • A family history of kidney disease
  • Past or current kidney problems
  • Having other health problems such as diabetes and high blood pressure
  • Taking certain medicines
  • Exposure to toxins



Some people do not have symptoms. Those who do may have:

  • Swelling from fluid buildup
  • Urine that has blood or looks foamy
  • Lower amounts of urine
  • Tiredness
  • Dry, itchy skin
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Loss of hunger
  • Muscle cramps at night


The doctor will ask about your symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done. You may need to see a doctor who treats kidney diseases.

Blood and urine tests will be done to check kidney function.

Images may need to be taken of the kidneys. This can be done with an ultrasound.

A small sample of the kidney may need to be removed and tested. This can be done with a kidney biopsy.



Some people with the acute form may get better with time. Others may need treatment to keep the kidney working. This also lowers the risk of further injury. Treatment depends on the cause. Options may be:

  • Stopping or changing medicines that are harming the kidneys
  • Medicines to:
    • Control problems that hurt the kidneys, such as high blood pressure and diabetes
    • Manage problems caused by the condition, such as swelling, nausea, or feeling tired
    • Treat infections
  • Lifestyle changes, such as dietary changes, not smoking, and maintaining a healthy weight
  • Dialysis to filter blood when the kidneys cannot


The risk may be lowered by managing health problems that can harm the kidneys.

This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.

Edits to original content made by Denver Health.