Kyphosis

Overview

Definition

Hyperkyphosis is an excessive outward curve of the upper spine. It is sometimes called hunchback.

Early treatment can improve outcomes.

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Causes

In some people, the cause is not known. The three main types and their causes are:

  • Postural—caused by poor posture
  • Congenital—present at birth, often with other spinal problems
  • Scheuermann—a type that is genetic and appears during the teen years

Risk Factors

Scheuermann is more common in teenage boys.

Things that may raise the risk of hyperkyphosis are:

  • Poor posture
  • Problems that weaken the bones, such as osteoporosis
  • Having other family members with spinal problems
  • Nueromuscular problems, such as cerebral palsy
  • Trauma to the spine
  • Spinal infections

SymptomsandDiagnosis

Symptoms

Problems may be:

  • Back pain or stiffness
  • Extreme rounding of the shoulders
  • A head that bends forward compared to the rest of the body
  • Differences in shoulder height
  • Fatigue

Diagnosis

This problem may be diagnosed during a routine exam or spinal check at school.

The doctor will ask about your symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done. It will focus on the spine. This is often enough to make the diagnosis.

Images may be taken of the spine. This can be done with:

  • X-ray
  • MRI scan
  • CT scan

Treatments

Treatment

Any underlying causes will need to be treated.

The goal of treatment is to stop the curve from getting worse. Choices are:

  • Observing a mild curve for any changes
  • Over the counter pain relievers
  • Physical therapy to learn exercises that improve posture and ease back pain
  • A back brace to keep the spine in line

Surgery may be needed by people with severe symptoms and those who are not helped by other methods. The goal of surgery is to correct the curve. This is done with a metal rod, hooks, or screws.

Prevention

There are no known guidelines to prevent this health problem.

This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.

Edits to original content made by Denver Health.

a (Roundback of the Spine; Congenital Kyphosis; Postural Kyphosis; Scheuermann Kyphosis; Hunchback)

RESOURCES

North American Spine Society http://www.spine.org 

Ortho Info—American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons http://www.orthoinfo.org 

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Canadian Orthopaedic Association http://www.coa-aco.org 

Canadian Orthopaedic Foundation http://www.canorth.org 

References

Acute low back pain. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/acute-low-back-pain. Accessed February 1, 2021.

Kyphosis. Boston Children’s Hospital website. Available at: http://www.childrenshospital.org/health-topics/conditions/kyphosis. Accessed February 1, 2021.

Kyphosis in children. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/kyphosis-in-children. Accessed February 1, 2021.

Kyphosis (roundback) of the spine. Ortho Info—American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons website. Available at: http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00423. Accessed February 1, 2021.

Miladi L. Round and angular kyphosis in paediatric patients. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2013 Feb;99(1 Suppl):S140-S149.