Sprain

Overview

Definition

A sprain is stretching or tearing of a ligament. Ligaments are strong bands of tissue that hold bones to each other. Sprains are more common in the ankle, knee, thumb or finger joints, and the shoulder.

Sprain: Grade 2
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Causes

A sprain is when a force pushes the bones of a joint apart. If the force is strong enough, the ligament comes apart. This can happen from things like:

  • A sudden change in direction
  • An impact with an object or another person
  • A misstep that causes a sudden strain at a joint

Risk Factors

Things that may raise the risk of this problem are:

  • Muscle weakness
  • Poor flexibility
  • Coordination and balance problems
  • Playing sports, such as basketball, football, skiing, and gymnastics

SymptomsandDiagnosis

Symptoms

Problems may be:

  • Pain and tenderness, especially putting weight on the joint
  • Swelling and bruising
  • Problems moving
  • A popping sound

Diagnosis

The doctor will ask about your symptoms and health history. You will also be asked how you hurt the joint. A physical exam will be done. It will focus on the joint.

It can be hard to tell a sprain from a fracture or dislocation. Pictures may be taken. This can be done with:

  • X-rays
  • MRI scan

Treatments

Treatment

Treatment will depend on the joint and how severe the injury is. The goal of treatment is to ease pain and improve movement. Choices are:

  • Supportive care, such as rest, ice, a compression bandage, and raising the area to ease pain and swelling
  • Medicine, such as over the counter and prescription pain relievers
  • Devices that keep the area still as it heals
  • Physical therapy to strengthen the area and improve movement

Prevention

Most sprains are due to accidents. They cannot always be prevented. The risk may be lowered by:

  • Using the right safety gear and techniques when playing sports
  • Stretching and strengthening the ligaments that support joints

This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.

Edits to original content made by Denver Health.

a (Ligament Sprain)

RESOURCES

American College of Sports Medicine http://acsm.org 

Ortho Info—American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons http://orthoinfo.aaos.org 

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Canadian Orthopaedic Association http://www.coa-aco.org 

Canadian Orthopaedic Foundation http://www.canorth.org 

References

Ankle sprain. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:  https://www.dynamed.com/condition/ankle-sprain  . October 12, 2020.

Derry S, Moore RA, et al. Topical NSAIDs for acute musculoskeletal pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev.2015;(6):CD007402.

Sprained ankle. Ortho Info—American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons website. Available at: http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00150. October 12, 2020.