Thyroid Conditions



Hyperthyroidism may be caused by:

  • Graves disease—the immune system attacks cells of the thyroid gland
  • One or more thyroid nodules
  • Thyroiditis—inflammation of the thyroid
  • Taking too much thyroid hormone

Risk Factors

Things that may raise the risk of hyperthyroidism include:

  • Pregnancy—postpartum thyroiditis (hyperthyroidism followed by hypothyroidism)
  • Family history of Graves disease
  • Certain viral infections
  • Smoking



Symptoms may show once the thyroid becomes more active. They often come on slowly. Examples include:

  • Feeling hot more easily and increased sweating
  • Mood swings, nervousness, restlessness, or irritability
  • Feeling tired
  • Pounding heartbeats or fast or uneven pulse
  • Shortness of breath
  • Unexplained weight loss despite an increased appetite
  • Problems sleeping
  • Passing more stools (poop) or loose stools
  • Changes in or lack of menstrual periods
  • Shaky hands
  • Dry, red eyes
  • Double vision


The doctor will ask about symptoms and past health. A physical exam will be done. Thyroid problems may be suspected. A blood test will show levels of thyroid hormone. It can also show antibodies if the problems are caused by immune issues. A radioactive iodine uptake test may be done. It can show how well the thyroid is working.



Treatment will depend on what is causing the hyperthyroidism. Options include:

Antithyroid Medicine

Medicine can calm thyroid activity. It may bring hormone levels down to normal. Medicine may need to be adjusted over time.

Smoking can cause problems with some of the medicine. There are a different tools to help quit smoking.

Reduce or Remove Thyroid

The thyroid normally absorbs iodine. A form of iodine with radioactive material is taken by mouth. The thyroid absorbs the special iodine. The radioactive material damages most of the thyroid cells. This will decrease the amount of hormones made by the thyroid. Hormone replacement medicine may be needed if levels fall too much.

Thyroidectomy is the removal of all or part of the thyroid. It is an uncommon treatment of hyperthyroidism. It may be done if medical therapy fails.

Manage Symptoms

A type of medicine called beta-blockers may help symptoms. It may help to ease fast heart beats and nervousness.


There are no current steps to prevent hyperthyroidism.

This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.

Edits to original content made by Denver Health.