Zika Virus Infection



A specific type of mosquito can pick up the Zika virus when it bites someone with a current Zika infection. The mosquito can then pass the virus to the next person it bites. The virus spreads in the body and leads to symptoms.

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Risk Factors

This problem is more common in people who spend time in a high risk area without proper mosquito protection. Zika has been linked to:

  • South America: Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Paraguay, Suriname, and Venezuela
  • Mexico and Central America: El Salvador, Honduras, and Panama
  • The Caribbean: Barbados, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Martinique, Puerto Rico, and Saint Martin

Outbreaks have also happened in Africa and Southeast Asia.



Most people will not have symptoms. The body can find and remove the virus before problems start.

Others will have symptoms a few days after the bite. They may last a few days to a week. A person may have:

  • Fever
  • Rash
  • Eye redness and irritation
  • Headache
  • Joint pain
  • Muscle pain


The doctor will ask about your symptoms and health history. You may be asked about any recent travel to high risk places. A physical exam will be done.

Many viruses can be passed from mosquitoes. A blood test will be done to find out which virus is causing symptoms.



Most people get better on their own within a week. There are no medicines to treat a Zika virus infection. The goal is to manage symptoms until they pass. Choices are:

  • Home care, such as rest and drinking fluids
  • Over the counter pain relievers, such as acetaminophen

Family Planning

The Zika virus may exist in the body or in sperm for a period of time even after symptoms have passed. To lower the risk of passing the virus to a fetus:

  • Women who have been infected or suspect an infection should wait at least 8 weeks before trying to get pregnant.
  • Men who have been infected or had possible exposure to Zika should wait at least 6 months before trying to have a child with their partner.

Those who have been to high risk places but have not shown symptoms should wait at least 8 weeks before attempting pregnancy.


There is no vaccine for the Zika virus. The risk of infection may be lowered by mosquito control measures, especially when spending time in places that are high risk.

There is some concern that the Zika virus can be passed during sexual activities. Condoms can prevent the spread. They should be used for the first week after visiting a high risk place.

This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.

Edits to original content made by Denver Health.