Urethritis is more common in women. Other factors that may increase your chance of urethritis include:
- Multiple sexual partners
- Recent change in sexual partners
- Unprotected sex (without use of a condom)
- History of other STDs
- Bacterial infection of other parts of the urinary tract (bladder, kidney, prostate)
- Medications that lower resistance to bacterial infection
- Having catheters or tubes placed in the bladder
- Acidic foods
People with urethritis may not have symptoms, especially women. About half of men infected with chlamydia have no symptoms.
Urethritis may cause:
- Pain and/or burning while urinating
- Blood in the urine
Increase in urinary:
- Itching, swelling, and/or tenderness in the groin
- Pain during sex
Urethritis symptoms specific to men may include:
- Discharge from the penis
- Blood in the semen
- Pain during ejaculation
- Swollen and/or tender testicles
If left untreated, urethritis can spread and cause infection in other parts of the urinary tract such as the bladder, ureters, or kidneys.
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. It will include a pelvic exam. Urethritis is usually diagnosed from its symptoms. Tests to confirm the diagnosis and identify the organism causing the condition may include:
- Urethral swab for microscopic study or culture
- Blood and urine tests
- Specific tests for gonorrhea, chlamydia, or other STDs
Urethritis is usually treated with medication. The type of medication will depend on the cause of the urethral infection:
- Antibiotics—to treat urethritis caused by bacteria
- Antiviral drugs—to treat urethritis caused by some viruses
Refraining from sexual activity recommended until 7 days after initiation of therapy.
If urethritis is caused by an STD, all sexual partners should be tested and treated.
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
Edits to original content made by Denver Health.
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a (Urethral Infection)
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention https://www.cdc.gov
Urology Care Foundation http://www.urologyhealth.org
Canadian Urological Association http://www.cua.org
Women's Health Matters http://www.womenshealthmatters.ca
2015 Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/default.htm. Updated January 25, 2017. Accessed September 7, 2017.
Diseases characterized by urethritis and cervicitis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/std/treatment/2010/urethritis-and-cervicitis.htm. Updated January 28, 2011. Accessed September 7, 2017.
Miller KE. Diagnosis and treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Am Fam Physician. 2006;73(8):1411-1416.
Nongonococcal urethritis. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116488/Nongonococcal-urethritis . Updated May 31, 2017. Accessed September 12, 2016.