Narcolepsy

Overview

Definition

Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder. It causes bouts of sleep during the day. Sleep attacks can happen while you drive, talk, or work. They happen without control.

Causes

The cause isn’t known. It may be linked to problems with:

  • Certain genes
  • The immune system—it attacks certain cells in the brain

Risk Factors

Narcolepsy is most common in people:

  • Aged 10-20 years old
  • With a family history
  • With a history of certain strep infections

SymptomsandDiagnosis

Symptoms

People often have at least 1 or more of:

  • Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS)—almost every day for at least 3 months
  • Daytime sleep attacks—can happen many times during the day without control
  • Muscles go limp without warning or you can’t move, even though you’re awake—cataplexy
  • Brief times when you can’t move while waking up or falling asleep
  • Vivid dreams that appear while waking up or falling asleep
  • Poor sleep quality
  • Problems with the sleep-wake cycle
  • Feeling tired

Strong feelings, such as laughter, fear, or stress, often cause cataplexy.

Brainstem—Area of Brain Related to Alertness
GM00010 97870 brainstem.jpg
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

Diagnosis

You will be asked about your symptoms and health history. You may have:

  • A physical exam
  • Polysomnography —studies brain waves and how your body works while you're asleep
  • Multiple sleep latency test (MSLT)—to measure the degree of EDS you have
  • A questionnaire about your EDS

Treatments

Treatment

Treating narcolepsy depends on the problems you have. Common methods are:

  • Medicines to help you:
    • Stay alert during the day
    • Manage your sleep cycle
    • With certain prior strep infections
  • Planning short naps throughout the day
  • Therapy to cope with issues of self esteem

Prevention

Narcolepsy can't be prevented since the cause is unknown.

This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.

Edits to original content made by Denver Health.

RESOURCES

Narcolepsy Network https://narcolepsynetwork.org 

National Sleep Foundation https://sleepfoundation.org 

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Better Sleep Council Canada https://www.bettersleep.ca 

Canadian Sleep Society https://css-scs.ca 

References

Bhat A, El Sohl AA. Management of narcolepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacotherapy. 2008;9(10):1721-1733.

Dauvilliers Y, Arnulf I, Mignot E. Narcolepsy with cataplexy. Lancet. 2007;369(9560):499-511.

Narcolepsy. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:  http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116132/Narcolepsy  . Updated November 14, 2017. Accessed August 22, 2018.

Narcolepsy. National Sleep Foundation website. Available at: https://sleepfoundation.org/sleep-disorders-problems/narcolepsy-and-sleep. Accessed August 22, 2018.

Narcolepsy fact sheet. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at: https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/Patient-Caregiver-Education/Fact-Sheets/Narcolepsy-Fact-Sheet. Updated July 6, 2018. Accessed August 22, 2018.