Nicotine Addiction

Overview

Definition

Dependence is a physical change in how your body reacts to a substance. In this case, nicotine. Your body will also have a reaction when you stop using it. Nicotine can be found in tobacco products such as:

  • Cigarettes
  • Snuff
  • Chewing tobacco
  • Cigars
  • Pipes
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Causes

Nicotine acts on the brain's chemistry. It creates feelings of pleasure. However, the effects go away within a few minutes. Users will need to continue using nicotine to keep the good feelings going. This cycle can lead to addiction.

Risk Factors

Use of nicotine products is the main risk factor.

The risk of addiction increases with:

  • Family history or exposure to smoking
  • Depression
  • Victims of bullying

SymptomsandDiagnosis

Symptoms

Symptoms only develop when nicotine is not being used. This is known as withdrawal. Symptoms of withdrawal include:

  • Irritability
  • Craving
  • Nervousness
  • Headache
  • Thinking and attention problems
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Increased appetite

Tobacco use is also associated with several serious health conditions such as:

  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
  • Chronic bronchitis
  • Emphysema
  • Cancers of the larynx (voice box), oral cavity, throat, esophagus, lung, colon, and others
  • Coronary artery disease (CAD)
  • Stroke
  • Increased risk of stillbirth, infant death, low birth weight, miscarriage, premature delivery, or sudden infant death syndrome
  • Alcohol or drug use disorders
  • Depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety, personality disorders, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
  • Shorter life span
  • Complications during surgery and recovery

Diagnosis

Your doctor will ask about your symptoms, medical, and smoking history. A physical exam will be done.

A blood test can check cotinine level in your saliva or blood. This will show changes in nicotine use. The doctor may use it to check your progress.

Treatments

Treatment

Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment may involve one or more therapies. Options include:

Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT)

NRT relieves withdrawal symptoms. NRT products include:

  • Nicotine gum
  • Lozenges
  • Nasal sprays
  • Patches
  • Inhalers

The chance of becoming dependent on these products is low. NRT does not create the same 'feel good' feelings as nicotine.

NRT may help you to:

  • Avoid smoking
  • Reduce the amount of tobacco you use
  • Quit and stay smoke-free

Electronic Cigarettes

Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) turn liquid nicotine into a vapor. There is conflicting evidence on whether or not they may help you quit. In addition, the long-term effects of e-cigarette use are not known.

Behavioral Therapy

Behavioral therapies include:

  • Counseling
  • Group behavior therapy
  • Telephone quit lines, cell phone programs, and text messaging programs
  • Internet and computer-based programs
  • Self-help classes and manuals
  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy

Medication

Medicine that may help you quit include:

  • Antidepressants
  • Nicotine partial agonists—mimics effect of nicotine to ease withdrawal

Other medicine may help ease withdrawal symptoms. A third type may be used if you start smoking again. It blocks the pleasure feeling when you use nicotine.

Prevention

The best prevention is to never use tobacco products. Try to avoid places where people are smoking as well.

This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.

Edits to original content made by Denver Health.

a (Tobacco Use Disorder; Smoking Addiction)

RESOURCES

American Cancer Society https://www.cancer.org 

Freedom From Smoking—American Lung Association http://www.freedomfromsmoking.org 

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Canadian Cancer Society https://www.cancer.ca 

The Lung Association https://www.lung.ca 

References

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Tobacco, nicotine, and e-cigarettes. National Institute on Drug Abuse website. Available at: https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/tobacco-nicotine-e-cigarettes/introduction. Updated January 2018. Accessed April 18, 2018.

Tobacco and cancer. American Cancer Society website. Available at: https://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancer-causes/tobacco-and-cancer.html. Updated April 18, 2018.

Tobacco use. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:  http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114788/Tobacco-use . Updated March 8, 2018. Accessed April 18, 2018.

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