Nearsightedness is a type of refractive error, which means the shape of the eye does not bend light correctly, so images are blurred. This usually occurs with an eyeball that is longer or a cornea that is steeper than normal. It may also indicate variations in blood sugar levels in people with diabetes or developing cataract. It may also be temporary after long periods of close-up work when the eyes have trouble refocusing.
Nearsightedness is more likely to occur in people who have family members with the same condition.
Although the evidence is conflicting, some specialists believe that chronic near work, such as prolonged periods of reading or the daily use of a computer may also increase your chance of developing nearsightedness.
Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Options may include:
Nearsightedness can be treated using corrective lenses, such as eyeglasses or contact lenses. You will have appointments at regular intervals to assess your vision and determine if your corrective lenses prescription needs to change.
If you elect to undergo the procedure, certain forms of nearsightedness may be treated with refractive surgery. The surgeries used to treat nearsightedness focus on changing the corneas shape to increase the eye's ability to focus. Many of these procedures are done using lasers, such as LASIK or photorefractive keratectomy.
Corneal Refractive Therapy
Corneal refractive therapy, also called orthokeratology, uses a series of hard contact lenses to flatten the cornea over time. When the contact lenses are worn, they eliminate the nearsightedness. However, it is not a permanent solution. If you stop using the contact lenses, the nearsightedness returns as the cornea returns to its original shape.
In some situations, removing your native lens and possibly replacing it with an intraocular lens can help treat nearsightedness.
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
Edits to original content made by Denver Health.
Copyright © EBSCO Information Services
All rights reserved.
American Academy of Ophthalmology http://www.aao.org
National Eye Institute http://www.nei.nih.gov
Canadian Association of Optometrists http://www.opto.ca
Canadian Ophthalmological Society http://www.eyesite.ca
Durrie DS, Vande Garde TL. LASIK enhancements. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2000; 40:103.
Gimbel HV, Penno EE, et al. Incidence and management of intraoperative and early postoperative complications in 1000 consecutive laser in situ keratomileusis cases. Ophthalmology. 1998;105:1839.
Myopia (nearsightedness). American Optometric Association website. Available at: http://www.aoa.org/patients-and-public/eye-and-vision-problems/glossary-of-eye-and-vision-conditions/myopia. Accessed February 18, 2016.
Nearsightedness: Myopia treatment. American Academy of Ophthalmology website. Available at: http://www.geteyesmart.org/eyesmart/diseases/myopia-treatment.cfm. Accessed February 18, 2016.
Shortt AJ, Bunce C, Allan BD. Evidence for superior efficacy and safety of LASIK over photorefractive keratectomy for correction of myopia (Review). Ophthalmology. 2006 Nov;113(11):1897-908.
Yoo SH, Azar DT. Laser in situ keratomileusis for the treatment of myopia. Int Ophthalmol Clin.1999;39:37.