Mitral Stenosis Child



The most common cause of mitral stenosis is rheumatic fever . This infection may happen after strep throat or scarlet fever. It can scar the heart valves. Mitral stenosis may develop 5 to 10 years after infection.

Less common causes are:

  • Structural problems that are present at birth
  • Blood clots
  • Tumors
  • Infective endocarditis
  • Growth that blocks blood flow through the mitral valve

Risk Factors

The risk of this problem is higher in children who have rheumatic fever. Other things that may raise the risk are:

  • Being born with mitral valve problems
  • Having other health problems that affect blood flow in the heart



Problems may be:

  • Trouble breathing, especially during activity and when lying flat
  • Waking up short of breath in the middle of the night
  • Tiredness
  • Fast heartbeat
  • Coughing up blood
  • Swelling of the legs or feet
  • Lightheadedness and fainting
  • Chest pain (rare)


The doctor will ask about your child’s symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done.

Pictures of the heart may be taken. This can be done with:

Heart function may be tested. This can be done with:

  • Electrocardiogram (EKG)
  • Stress test



Treatment for mild stenosis may not be needed right away. The child may be monitored for changes.

Children who do need treatment may be given medicines to:

  • Improve heart function
  • Remove excess fluid from the body

Some children may need surgery to prevent heart damage. Choices are:

  • Mitral valvulotomy to allow the mitral valve to open wider
  • Balloon valvuloplasty to stretch nearby tissue by inflating a balloon in the mitral valve
  • Mitral valve replacement to put a mechanical or tissue valve in the place of the damaged valve


The risk of this problem may be lowered by getting treatment for strep throat or scarlet fever right away.

This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.

Edits to original content made by Denver Health.