A muscle strain is caused by stress that the muscle cannot withstand. There are several ways that this can happen:
- Muscle may not be ready for sudden stress
- Tension may be too much for the muscle to bear, such as lifting a weight that is too heavy for you
- Muscle is used too much on a certain day
Certain areas have muscles that are more likely to be strained than others, including:
Muscles that cross 2 joints are at the greatest risk.
Symptoms depend on how you strained the muscle.
Strain while doing physical activity:
- Immediate soreness or pain in the affected muscle
- Increased pain if you try to use that muscle
- Area becomes tender and swollen
- May be a skin bruise because (more severe tearing)
- Moving the nearby joints causes pain. Running and lifting are common activities that cause this type of muscle strain.
Strain from a build up of stress:
- Very sore muscle the day after you do an unfamiliar activity (may not feel pain during the activity)
- Use of muscle causes pain or discomfort
Treatment depends on the severity of the strain and the muscle involved.
The muscle will need time to heal. Avoid activity that stresses the area. In general, during recovery:
- Avoid activities that cause pain.
- Walk using a shorter stride.
- Avoid playing sports.
- Ice may help decrease swelling and pain. It is most effective in the first few days after the injury.
- An elastic bandage around the area can provide some compression. It may help to stop more swelling.
- Elevate the area when at rest. This can also help reduce swelling.
Pain Relief Medicine
Pain medicine may be advised. These may include:
- Over-the-counter medicine, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, or acetaminophen
- Topical pain medicine—creams or patches that are applied to the skin
- Prescription pain relievers
Returning to Activity
To prevent reinjury your doctor may recommend:
- Rehabilitation with a physical therapist—for more severe injury
- Heat to loosen muscle before activity
- Regular stretching program to relieve some stress on the muscles
To reduce your chance of straining a muscle:
- Keep your muscles strong. This will help to absorb the energy of sudden stressful activities.
- After a short warm-up period, stretch out tight muscles.
- Learn the proper technique for athletic activities to decrease muscle stress.
- Stop when you are tired. Tired muscles do not function well. They do not react properly to sudden stress.
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
Edits to original content made by Denver Health.
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a (Pulled Muscle; Strain, Muscle)
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