Parotitis

Overview

Definition

Parotitis is inflammation in one or both of the parotid glands. These are 2 large salivary glands that are inside each cheek over the jaw in front of each ear.

Parotitis can be:

  • Acute—inflammation that resolves in a short period of time with or without treatment
  • Chronic—includes persistent inflammation or alternating periods of flare-ups and remission
Parotid Gland
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Causes

An inflamed parotid gland has several causes. These vary depending on whether the condition is acute or chronic. The most common causes include:

  • Bacterial infection
  • Mumps
  • Other viral infections
  • Blockage of saliva flow
  • Autoimmune diseases

Risk Factors

This condition is more common in older adults. Other factors that may increase your chance of parotitis include:

  • Dehydration and/or malnutrition
  • Recent surgery
  • Radiation therapy for head and neck cancer
  • Medical conditions, such as:
    • HIV infection
    • Diabetes
    • Alcohol use disorder
    • Sarcoidosis
    • Sjogren’s syndrome
  • Blocked saliva flow, resulting from:
    • Salivary stone in the parotid gland
    • Mucus plug in a salivary duct
    • Tumor—usually benign
  • Psychiatric conditions, such as depression or eating disorders
  • Use of certain medications
  • Poor oral hygiene

SymptomsandDiagnosis

Symptoms

Acute parotitis may cause:

  • Sudden facial pain and swelling that worsens with salivation or after eating
  • Redness and tenderness
  • Pus that may drain into the mouth

Chronic parotitis may cause:

  • Swelling around the parotid gland
  • Dry mouth
  • Milky secretions
  • Strange or foul taste in your mouth
  • Fever, chills, and other signs of infection

Chronic parotitis can destroy the salivary glands.

Diagnosis

You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. This may be enough to make a diagnosis. Tests may include a blood test and a fluid sample from the parotid gland.

Imaging tests evaluate the parotid gland and surrounding structures. These may include:

  • Ultrasound
  • CT scan
  • MRI scan
  • Sialography to evaluate the ducts in and around the parotid gland

Treatments

Treatment

Treatment depends on what is causing the parotitis. Options may include:

Good Oral Hygiene

Flossing once a day and thorough tooth brushing at least twice a day may help with healing. Warm salt-water rinses can help keep the mouth moist. If you smoke, talk to your doctor about ways you can quit.

Medications

Medications may include:

  • Antibiotics for bacterial infections (antibiotics are not effective for viral infections)
  • Anti-inflammatory drugs to manage inflammation and pain

Blockage Removal

Your doctor may need to remove a stone, tumor, or other blockage. Increasing saliva flow may be all that is needed to remove a mucus plug.

Prevention

To help reduce your chances of parotitis:

  • Get prompt treatment for any infections.
  • See your dentist for proper oral care as recommended.
  • Drink plenty of fluids throughout the day to avoid dehydration.
  • Receive the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination if you have not yet been vaccinated

This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.

Edits to original content made by Denver Health.

a (Sialadenitis; Salivary Gland Infection)

RESOURCES

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention http://www.cdc.gov 

National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research http://www.nidcr.nih.gov 

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca 

Public Health Agency of Canada http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca 

References

Acute suppurative parotitis. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:  http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115829/Acute-suppurative-parotitis . Updated June 21, 2010. Accessed June 10, 2015.

Cain A. Parotitis. Net Doctor website. Available at: http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/conditions/mouth-and-teeth/a3082/parotitis. Accessed June 10, 2015.

Chitre VV, Premchandra DJ. Review: recurrent parotitis. Arch Dis Child. 1997;77(4):359-363.

Wilson KF, Meier JD, Ward PD. Salivary gland disorders. Am Fam Physician. 2014;9(11):882-888.