Prostatitis

Overview

Definition

Prostatitis is swelling of the prostate gland. The prostate is a walnut-sized gland in men that surrounds the urethra. It produces a fluid that is part of semen.

Prostate Gland
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There are 4 types of prostatitis:

  • Acute bacterial prostatitis
  • Chronic bacterial prostatitis
  • Chronic pelvic pain syndrome
  • Asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis

Causes

Acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis are caused by an infection. A bacteria enters the prostate—usually from the urinary tract or rectum.

The causes of chronic pelvic pain syndrome and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis are not clearly understood. In some people, it is possible that a cause may not be found.

Risk Factors

Prostatitis is most common in men who use catheters. Other factors that may increase the chances of prostatitis:

  • Unprotected sex
  • Inability of the foreskin to fully retract over the head of the penis—phimosis
  • Narrowing of the urethra, the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body
  • Enlarged prostate
  • History of urinary tract infections

SymptomsandDiagnosis

Symptoms

Symptoms depend on the category of prostatitis syndrome. In many people, symptoms may not appear. In others, they may appear as another condition.

Symptoms may include:

  • Needing to urinate frequently and/or urgently
  • Pain or burning while urinating
  • Difficulty urinating
  • Lower abdominal pain or pressure
  • Penile, rectal, or perineal discomfort
  • Lower back pain
  • Fever or chills
  • Erectile dysfunction

Diagnosis

You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. A digital rectal exam may be done as part of the physical exam.

Your bodily fluids and tissues may be tested. This can be done with:

  • Urine tests
  • Prostate massage
  • Prostate biopsy

Treatments

Treatment

Treatment depends on the type of prostatitis:

Infectious Prostatitis

Acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis are treated with oral antibiotics. Antibiotics may be given over 4-12 weeks. The antibiotics may be given through an IV for severe infections.

Other medications to help manage symptoms include:

  • Stool softeners
  • Anti-inflammatory medications
  • Pain medication
  • Alpha-blockers or 5-alpha reductase inhibitors to help with urine flow

Your doctor may recommend that you avoid alcohol and caffeinated beverages.

Noninfectious Prostatitis

Antibiotics may be recommended if an infection is possible. Other treatments to manage symptoms include:

  • Alpha-blockers or 5-alpha reductase inhibitors
  • Anti-inflammatory medications such as ibuprofen
  • Pain medication
  • Warm sitz baths
  • Repeated prostate massages

Prevention

To help reduce your chance of prostatitis:

  • Practice safe sex. Protect yourself from sexually transmitted infections (STIs) by using condoms.
  • Emptying your bladder regularly and as soon as you feel the urge

You may also be able to reduce your risk of chronic pelvic pain through exercise. If allowed by your doctor, do moderate exercise for at least 30 minutes, 4 days a week.

This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.

Edits to original content made by Denver Health.

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RESOURCES

Men's Health Network http://www.menshealthnetwork.org 

Urology Care Foundation http://urologyhealth.org 

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Canadian Urological Association http://www.cua.org 

Men's Health Centre http://www.menshealthcentre.net 

References

Acute bacterial prostatitis. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:  http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115750/Acute-bacterial-prostatitis . Updated January 26, 2017. Accessed March 8, 2018.

Chronic bacterial prostatitis. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:  http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T905991/Chronic-bacterial-prostatitis . Updated January 26, 2017. Accessed March 8, 2018.

Propert KJ, McNaughton-Collins M, et al. A prospective study of symptoms and quality of life in men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: The National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Cohort Study. J Urol. 2006;175(2):619-623.

Prostatitis: inflammation of the prostate. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/urologic-diseases/prostate-problems/prostatitis-inflammation-prostate. Updated July 2014. Accessed March 8, 2018.

Prostatitis (prostate infection). Urology Care Foundation website. Available at: http://www.urologyhealth.org/urologic-conditions/prostatitis-(infection-of-the-prostate)?article=15. Accessed March 8, 2018.

Sharp VJ, Takacs EB, Powell CR. Prostatitis: diagnosis and treatment. Am Fam Physician. 2010;82(4):397-406.

5/18/2015 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance  http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115325/Chronic-prostatitis-Chronic-pelvic-pain-syndrome : Zhang R, Chomistek AK, Dimitrakoff JD, et al. Physical activity and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2015;7(4):757-764.