Pelvic Inflammatory Disease



Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a serious infection of the female reproductive organs. This includes the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes. PID can cause scar tissue to form in the pelvis and fallopian tubes. This damage may result in infertility , a future tubal pregnancy , or chronic pelvic pain.

Female Reproductive System Organs
Female Reproductive Organs
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.


PID may be caused by a variety of bacteria. The most common bacteria that initiate PID are gonorrhea and chlamydia .

Risk Factors

PID is most common in women aged 15-24 years. Other factors that may increase your chance of PID include:

  • Current or previous sexually-transmitted disease (STD)
  • Multiple sex partners
  • Sexual intercourse with a partner who has an STD
  • Intercourse without the protection of a condom
  • Having an intrauterine device (IUD) recently insterted for birth control



Women with PID do not always have symptoms. If symptoms do occur, they may include:

  • Pain in the lower abdomen
  • Vaginal discharge with a foul odor
  • Fatigue
  • Fever
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Painful intercourse
  • Painful urination
  • Vaginal bleeding


Because symptoms are often subtle or nonexistent, PID can be difficult to diagnose. There are no specific tests for PID.

If PID is suspected, you will be asked about your symptoms, as well as your sexual history, partners, and birth control methods. A physical and pelvic exam will be done. The pelvic exam is key to making the diagnosis. Samples from the vagina or cervix may be taken to help diagnose the problem.

Tests may include:

  • Cultures of the cervix to test for STDs
  • Blood tests to check pregnancy status, and signs of infection
  • Laparoscopy—insertion of a thin, lighted telescopic tube through a small incision in the abdomen to look at the reproductive organs

Imaging tests may be done with ultrasound or MRI scan .



The primary treatment for PID is antibiotics. More than 1 antibiotic may be prescribed to treat the problem. Finish the entire dose of each medication, even if your symptoms disappear during treatment.

You may be hospitalized if the diagnosis is uncertain, you do not improve, or your symptoms are severe. In the hospital, antibiotics can be given by IV. In certain situations, surgery may be required to remove infected or damaged tissue.


To help reduce your chance of PID:

  • Use a latex condom each time you have sexual intercourse.
  • Discuss birth control options with your doctor. Ask which methods may decrease your risk of PID.
  • Seek immediate treatment for symptoms, such as unusual vaginal discharge or bleeding.
  • Limit your number of sexual partners.
  • Have regular screening tests for STDs.

If you are diagnosed with PID or another STD:

  • Do not have sexual intercourse until after the treatment is complete, symptoms have resolved, and your sexual partner has been treated.
  • Notify all sexual partners. They will also need to be treated.

This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.

Edits to original content made by Denver Health.

a (PID; Salpingitis)


American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists 

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases 


The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada 

Women's Health Matters 


2010 STD treatment guidelines. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: Updated December 16, 2010. Accessed June 7, 2016.

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)—CDC fact sheet. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: Updated May 23, 2016. Accessed June 7, 2016.

Pelvic inflammatory disease. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: . Updated April 15, 2016. Accessed June 7, 2016.

Pelvic inflammatory disease. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases website. Available at: Updated November 29, 2011. Accessed June 7, 2016.