Growth hormone (GH) controls the growth of soft tissue and bone. Elevated GH causes an excess of bone and soft tissue growth. In adults, this can cause a rare disorder called acromegaly. It can cause serious complications and early death if not treated.
In young children, bone growth is still occurring. Excess GH can cause a similar condition called gigantism. Gigantism causes dramatic growth in children.
The pituitary gland is a small gland located at the base of the brain. It produces many hormones, including GH.
In most cases, the elevation of GH is caused by a benign tumor of this gland. In a small number of cases, cancerous tumors of other organs, such as the pancreas, adrenal, or lung, may be the source of excess GH.
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Symptoms usually develop slowly over time.
In children, the bones are longer and cause soft tissue swelling. If not treated, children can grow to a height of 7-8 feet.
Symptoms and complications in adults may include:
Abnormally large growth and deformity of the:
- Hands—rings no longer fit
- Feet—need a bigger size shoe
- Face—bulging of brow and lower jaw
- Jaw—teeth do not line up correctly when the mouth is closed
Skin changes, such as:
- Thickened, oily, and sometimes darkened skin
- Severe acne
- Excessive sweating and unpleasant body order due to enlargement of the sweat glands
- Deepening voice due to enlarged sinuses, vocal cords, and soft tissues of the throat
- Difficulty sleeping due to a blocked airway
- Swelling in the neck
- Fatigue and weakness in the legs and arms
- Joint pain, especially in the jaw
- Irregular menstrual cycles
- Abnormal production of breast milk
- In men—erectile dysfunction
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. It is helpful for the doctor to have pictures of yourself when you were younger. A physical exam will be done. Acromegaly is often not diagnosed until years after it begins.
Your bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with blood tests.
Images may be taken of your bodily structures. This can be done with:
- CT scan
- MRI scan
The goals of treatment are to:
- Reduce production of GH to normal levels
- Stop and reverse the symptoms caused by excess GH
- Correct other endocrine abnormalities, such as thyroid, adrenal, and sex organs
- Reduce tumor size
Treatment may include:
The tumor that is believed to be causing acromegaly may be removed. In most cases, this is the preferred treatment. However, drug treatment is increasing in popularity.
In adults, external beams of radiation are used to shrink the tumor. It is most often used when surgery cannot be used or when medications have failed.
Medications may be given to:
- Reduce the level of GH
- Shrink the tumor before surgery
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
Edits to original content made by Denver Health.
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National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases http://www.niddk.nih.gov
Pituitary Network Association http://www.pituitary.org
Canadian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism http://www.endo-metab.ca
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
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