Addison disease happens when the adrenal glands do not make enough of a hormone called cortisol. It helps the body with things like blood pressure, metabolism, and the immune system. Aldosterone hormone levels may also be low.
The disease may be:
- Primary—the adrenal glands cannot make hormones
- Secondary—other hormones that tell the adrenal glands what to do are missing or low
A severe problem from this disease is Addisonian or adrenal crisis. It can be deadly.
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Primary Addison disease is caused by problems with the outer layer of the adrenal gland. This can happen slowly over time.
Addison disease is most often caused when the immune system attacks the gland. It is not known why this happens.
Harm may also be caused by infections, such as:
- Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection
- Fungal infections
Less common causes are:
- Some cancers
- Amyloidosis—buildup of certain proteins in tissue
- Bleeding within the glands—may happen because of blood thinning drugs or shock
- Having the glands removed with surgery
- Genetic problems or birth defects that make it hard for the glands to work the right way
- Certain medicines
Secondary Addison disease can be caused by harm to the pituitary gland. This gland sends hormones that control the adrenal gland.
This disease may also happen after long-term corticosteroids are stopped.
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
Edits to original content made by Denver Health.
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a (Adrenal Insufficiency; Adrenocortical Hypofunction; Chronic Adrenocortical Insufficiency; Hypoadrenalism)
Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians http://familydoctor.org
National Adrenal Diseases Foundation http://www.nadf.us
The Canadian Addison Society http://www.Addisonsociety.ca
Health Canada https://www.canada.ca
Adrenal insufficiency and Addison's disease. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/endocrine/adrenal-insufficiency-Addisons-disease/Pages/fact-sheet.aspx. Accessed October 27, 2020.
Adrenal insufficiency in adults. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/adrenal-insufficiency-in-adults. Accessed October 27, 2020.
Charmandari E, Nicolaides NC, et al. Adrenal insufficiency. Lancet. 2014 Jun 21;383(9935):2152-2167.