Addisons Disease

Overview

Causes

Primary Addison disease is caused by problems with the outer layer of the adrenal gland. This can happen slowly over time.

Addison disease is most often caused by the immune system attacking the gland. It is not known why this happens.

The gland may be harmed by infections, such as:

  • Tuberculosis
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection
  • Fungal infections

Less common causes are:

  • Some cancers
  • Amyloidosis—buildup of certain proteins in tissue
  • Bleeding in the glands—may happen because of blood thinning drugs or shock
  • Having the glands removed with surgery
  • Genetic problems or birth defects that make it hard for the glands to work the right way
  • Certain medicines

Secondary Addison disease can be caused by harm to the pituitary gland. This gland sends hormones that control the adrenal gland.

This disease may also happen when a person has taken corticosteroids for a long time and then stops.

Risk Factors

This disease is more common in women.

Other things that may raise the risk are:

  • Sepsis—sickness caused by a bloodstream infection
  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
  • Pneumonia
  • Liver disease

SymptomsandDiagnosis

Symptoms

A person with Addison disease may:

  • Be very tired
  • Not be hungry or lose weight
  • Have nausea and vomiting
  • Have muscle and joint pain
  • Have dark freckles on nipples, scars, skin creases, gums, mouth, and nail beds
  • Crave salty foods
  • Have mental health issues, such as depression
  • Women may have:
    • Dry and itchy skin
    • Lack of sex drive

Diagnosis

The doctor will ask about your symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done.

Blood and urine tests may be done to check hormone levels.

Pictures may be taken. This can be done with:

  • MRI scan
  • CT scan

Treatments

Treatment

There is no cure. The goal is to manage symptoms and lower the risk of adrenal crisis.

Medicines can be given to replace missing hormones. The dose may need to be raised during times of stress or sickness, such as surgery, pregnancy, or trauma.

Prevention

Addison disease cannot be prevented.

This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.

Edits to original content made by Denver Health.