Self-harm is a sign of distress and problems with coping skills. People may self-harm when they feel intense anger or frustration. Some say if feels like tension release. Others may do it for a sense of control or to feel something other than numb.
Self-harm can cause shame. This shame can then create a new cycle of intense emotions and self-harm.
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Self-harm is most common in teens and young adults. Other things that may increase the risk include:
- Childhood abuse or neglect
- Past trauma
- Unstable home during childhood
- Binge drinking or drug use
Some mental health illnesses that may be present include:
- Borderline personality disorder
- Eating disorders, such as anorexia or bulimia
- Anxiety disorders
- Post-traumatic stress disorder
The type of harm can vary. Some examples are:
- Cutting of skin with a sharp object
- Skin carving or burning
- Self-punching or scratching
- Needle sticking
- Eye pressing
- Finger, lips, or arm biting
- Pulling out one's hair
- Picking at one's skin
People who use self-harm may:
- Have scars, often in a group
- Wear long sleeves or pants, even in hot weather
- Claim to have frequent accidents
- Have relationship problems
- Have behavioral problems
- Talk about feeling hopeless
Some self-harm can cause severe injuries. It may include broken bones, eye damage, or amputation.
Some may ask their doctor for help. A friend or relative may also bring it to the doctor's attention. However, people who self-harm often feel ashamed. This may prevent them from reaching out for help.
A doctor may notice scars during an exam. They may ask questions about stress, emotions, and wellness. This will help the doctor assess the problem. The questions may also help to see if other mental health issues may be present. A mental health counselor may also help to make the diagnosis.
Treatment can help to find what is driving the self-harm. This will help to make a treatment plan. Counseling can help. There are different types that may help with self-harm such as:
- Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)—learn about harmful thought patterns. Develop new coping skills.
- Dialectical behavior therapy—a type of CBT. Learn ways to manage stress, strong emotions, and relationships with others.
- Psychodynamic therapy—type of talk therapy to address stress.
Some counselors specialize in self-harm behaviors. The type of treatment may change if other mental illnesses are uncovered in treatment. Proper treatment may stop worsening of symptoms.
Medicine may be used to ease severe symptoms if needed. A hospital stay may also be needed if there is risk of severe harm.
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
Edits to original content made by Denver Health.
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