Syphilis is caused by bacteria. It is spread through contact with a syphilis sore. This may happen during oral, anal, or genital sex with an infected person
Symptoms will depend on what stage the syphilis is in. There are three main stages as well as a resting phase.
Primary Stage: 7 to 90 Days After Infection
A single sore appears. It will happen in the area where the infection was passed. Common sites are the external genitals, rectum, tongue, inside of the mouth, or lips.
It will start as a raised and painless sore called a chancre. It will break down to form an ulcer. It lasts for 3 to 6 weeks. The ulcer will heal on its own.
Without treatment, the infection may move to the secondary stage. This can happen even if a person no longer sees the ulcers.
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Secondary Stage: Several Weeks to Months after the Original Sore
This stage features a non-itchy rash. The rash may appear as rough, red, or reddish brown spots on the palms of the hands or soles of the feet. Other rashes may happen on the body and result in:
- Small blotches, blisters, or scales
- Moist warts in the groin
- Slimy white patches in the mouth
The rash may happen with flu-like symptoms, such as sore throat, fever, and muscle aches.
Without treatment, the symptoms will go away within a few weeks. But symptoms may repeat over the next few years.
Latency (Resting) Stage: May Last for Years
The infection is still present but there are no symptoms. It may or may not progress to the third stage.
Tertiary (Third or Late) Stage
This stage may start years after the infection begins. It is rare countries where people have access to medical care. In this stage, the infection damages the:
- Brain and nerves
- Heart and blood vessels
- Bones and joints
Damage can be harsh enough to cause death. Symptoms are:
- Small bumps called gummas on the skin, bones, or internal organs
- Central nervous system damage, such as weakness, numbness, trouble walking, problems with balance, memory and mental health problems, and loss of bladder control
Syphilis is treated with antibiotics.
People with syphilis should also avoid sexual contact until treatment is complete and the infection is gone.
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
Edits to original content made by Denver Health.
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